colors


PICO-8 has 16 default colors (0-15) and another 16 hidden colors (128 to 143) but these are not easy to access.

Default Palette


Number Hex Color Name *
00 #000000 black
01 #1D2B53 dark blue
02 #7E2553 dark purple
03 #008751 dark green
04 #AB5236 brown
05 #5F574F dark gray
06 #C2C3C7 light gray
07 #FFF1E8 white
08 #FF004D red
09 #FFA300 orange
10 #FFFF27 yellow
11 #00E756 green
12 #29ADFF blue
13 #83769C indigo
14 #FF77A8 pink
15 #FFCCAA peach

* official names in manual


Hidden Palette


Number Hex color Name *
128 / -16 #291814 onyx
129 / -15 #111D35 midnight
130 / -14 #422136 plum
131 / -13 #125359 forest
132 / -12 #742F29 chocolate
133 / -11 #49333B eggplant
134 / -10 #A28879 beige
135 / -9 #F3EF7D lemon
136 / -8 #BE1250 burgundy
137 / -7 #FF6C24 pumpkin
138 / -6 #A8E72E lime
139 / -5 #00B543 jade
140 / -4 #065AB5 royal
141 / -3 #754665 mauve
142 / -2 #FF6E59 coral
143 / -1 #FF9D81 salmon

* unofficial names




Analysis of the Default Palette



If we take the full rainbow spectrum, which you might be familiar with when selecting a color in an image editing tool, and we shift all the many colors towards their closest PICO-8 equivalent, then we get this PICO-8 Palette Spectrum.

You can use this to study the palette. For example, if you choose a spot and move along vertically, you'll see many possible combinations of light and dark tones for shading and transitions. If you move horizontally, you will see which colors sit at around the same saturation level. High saturation colors (towards the top) are good for standing out in the foreground against low saturation colors (towards the bottom) in the background.

Another way to display and study this spectrum is as concentric circles, where the innermost center is white and the outermost shell is black. This can help you see gradients of light to dark by moving outward in different directions similar to moving down the above image. This also better visualizes the endless continuation around the spectrum if you move along the circle in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, which can be helpful to build colorful shifting animations that loop through the colors more seamlessly.




Color Ramps of the Default Palette



Here are some examples of color ramps generated from studying these spectrums to create smooth shading combinations that you can use to improve your pixel art in PICO-8.




References for Mixed Palettes

Here are some helpful reference images you can use while drawing PICO-8 sprites, or choosing the custom palette for your game. You can swap out these colors anytime, with some limitations. It is more common however to set your own custom palette by selecting 16 colors from these 32 options. 


This is how the hidden palette lines up with the default palette, showing beautiful darker options to the originals. Also notice that this refers to the hidden palette as negative numbers. This is another, possibly easier, way to access them.


Here are some color ramps using a mix of both palettes, useful if you want to make an original gameboy looking game, or a grayscale game, or simply include more shades of an important color in your game.


This is another configuration of the two palettes merged together with the default palette on the outside and the hidden or secret palette on the inside.



2107

11 Nov 2023


 color(number)
 

This will set the color to be used in the next draw call, such as: print() circ() rect() line() oval()

If those draw functions do not use the optional color setting, then whatever color was last set will be used. By using the optional color settings in functions that have them, it sets that color to be the currently selected color.

Example:

color(8) --set color to red
print("hello world")

the text hello world in red

The above is the same as:

print("hello world",0,0,8)
 

the text hello world in red



print("hello",0,0,8)  --red
oval(30,2,50,12)
color(7) --white
print("world")
rect(60,2,80,12)

the text hello world in red

Notice that the oval is red even though we don't tell it to be nor did we use color(8). This happened because setting the color to red in print actually sets the draw color the same way as using color() would. Then we do use color(7) to change the draw color to white, and this applies the color to the next print and rectangle draws.



551

19 Mar 2023


pal = "palette" (set of colors)

 pal( color1, color2, [palette] )
color1 color number to change from
color2 new color number to change to
palette (optional) set the type of palette change. Default = 0. See Palette Types below

 pal()  --reset

Calling pal with empty parentheses resets all colors to the default palette (including transparency settings):

pico-8 default color palette


Palette Types

0 = Draw Palette

Setting it to Draw Palette (using 0 or leaving it empty) will change the color palette for all future draws. Does not affect anything that was already drawn.

spr(1,10,10)  --draw red flower
pal(8,12,0)   --change reds to blue
spr(1,20,10)  --draw same flower

In the above code, we set color #8 (red) to be color #12 (blue), so when we draw the next same exact sprite, it will draw as blue instead, but does not affect the first flower. 

shows red color changes to blue color red flower then blue flower

Even though we often refer to this function as "Palette Swap", note that it does not actually "swap" the colors around. Instead, it only replaces the first color with the second, while the second color remains the same. 

1 = Display Palette

Setting it to Display Palette (using 1) re-draws the whole screen before it gets displayed at the end of each frame. This will affect everything already drawn to the screen.

function _draw()
	cls()
	spr(1,10,10)  --draw red flower
	pal(8,12,1)   --change reds to blue
	spr(1,20,10)  --draw same flower
end

We can do the same demonstration as above, using a red flower sprite in sprite #1. However, the palette changes will reset when you exit the game. So we need to put this code inside of the _draw() function to stay in the game and view the changes. Press ESC and you will see the sprites turn back to the color red when the Display Palette gets reset.

Note that this also affects the editor colors. For example, if you type PAL(8,12,1) into the command line and press enter, all of the red (#8) immediately changes to blue (#12) even though it has already been drawn.

You can poke memory 0x5f2e and set it to 1 to force the palette to keep your changes so that both your game and the editors will maintain your palette changes.

poke( 0x5f2e, 1 )
2 = Secondary Palette

From the manual: "Used by FILLP() for drawing sprites. This provides a mapping from a single 4-bit colour index to two 4-bit colour indexes."

(to be expanded)

Reset Palette Type
 pal(#)  --pallete type to default

Calling pal with a single number (#0-2) will treat that as the palette type to reset to the default palette (including transparency settings).



Rearrange the Palette

 pal( table, [palette] )

Instead of the 2 color number arguments, it is also possible to pass a single table. This sets the full palette using a table of color numbers in order that they are arranged. 

 pal({15,14,13,12,11,10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0})

This will swap color numbers 1-15 (in order) to the numbers set within the table (reverse order). 

shows red color changes to blue color

However, notice that color #0 did not change. That's because Lua tables start at 1 so the first number in the table will be set to color #1, and the next one #2, and so on, until #15. The 16th color in the table will be set to #0. 

If you would prefer the order of your table to start at #0, then you can force the table index number like this:

pal( { [0]=15, 14, 13, 12, 11, ... } )


626

10 Mar 2023


palt = "palette transparency"

 palt( color, boolean )

color a color number
boolean true or false to set transparency on or off

Example:

spr(1,10,10)  --draw red flower
palt(8,true)  --red transparent
spr(1,20,10)  --draw same flower

red flower and flower without redAs you can see, this code first drew a red flower, but before it drew the second flower, the color red was set to be transparent so the red petals don't appear on the second flower after the call to palt.

Reset Transparency
 palt()

Calling palt with empty parentheses resets all colors to default transparency, where only black (#0) is transparent.



523

9 Mar 2023


PICO-8 has 16 extra colors that are undocumented and a bit tricky to access.

This means we actually have 32 colors to choose from and you can set your own 16 color palette using a mix of them both.

Using the palette swapping function, you can change a default color with a hidden color but you must set the last argument to 1.

 pal( current color, new color, 1 )

This accesses the PICO-8 memory and sets the color palette to change. Do this to see the code below.

poke( 0x5f2e, 1 )

Swap the full palette using a mix of default and hidden color numbers in a table of 16 color numbers and the second argument set to 1.

pal( {1,2,3...} ,1 )

Swap all of the default colors to the hidden colors.

pal( {[0]=128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143}, 1 )

1329

9 Mar 2023


Font